|is infinite||of infinite realities|
|and is composed||that obey infinite physical laws|
|within infinite dimensions|
In Isaac Newton's universe there were three dimensions: length, breadth and width . These three dimensions could not be interpreted by elementary two dimensional geometry so Newton created calculus.
'Time', in Newton's universe, was simply a measuring device which Newton called a "duration" and the transmission of light, in Newton's cosmology, was instantaneous. Length, breadth and width were considered to be "constants" and the only variable was motion.
Newton also said that "gravity" was an attracting force that existed between objects.
Newton's 3D cosmology worked just fine in calculating the geometry of our solar system until other astronomer/mathematicians discovered that the transmission of light was not instantaneous. These other astronomer/mathematicians determined that light was "very fast" but not instantaneous. This discovery about light speed threw a monkey wrench into Newton's celestial mechanics as applied to viewable events occurring outside of our solar system.
Albert Einstein's universe there are four
width (called, collectively, 'space') and time. For Einstein, stationary objects in space
but these three dimensions are not constants.
*This is a curious conclusion because if time is variable depending upon velocity then how does one measure 'velocity' which, typically, is 'time dependent'?
Einstein determined that the speed of light was a constant and unaffected by time (or space). But how can one determine the speed of light when time is variable?
Then Stephen Hawking says, "then what happens to the velocity of light when time stops in a blackhole"?
cosmology is phenomenal because it means that time / space and material
are not fixed quantities, but rather, they are only temporarily fixed
They become variable and their structural mechanics start to rearrange
when you introduce movement.
needed a constant in order to be able to
measure the shifting of
the structure of time / space / matter / velocity. He
constant he required was the maximum speed of light, which is, the
when it is unencumbered by matter and traveling through
uncompressed space with zero gravity (i.e. a pure vacuum).
in a 'field' of 'light only'.....
the maximum speed must be instantaneous
because the light is a 'unity'
Einstein also said (implied) that there are three types of "space": Traditional "space" which is (appears) empty, and a solid entity called "mass" and 'absolute space' which is immeasureable and within which traditional space and mass express their existence.
In traditional geometry a three dimensional object is thought to occupy space and this analysis works fine for measuring a stationary object. However, once the object starts moving it is no longer in a 3 dimensional Newtonian universe and but enters the Einsteinian cosmology of "The Fourth Dimension".
Gravitational fields seem to bend light but the light only appears to be affected by the gravitational field. The field that is affecting the flow of light is caused by the warp of space created by the presence of matter displacing the immediate surrounding space.
is at this juncture that Stephen Hawking enters the playing field.
credentials are as impressive as Albert Einstein's and Isaac
Stephen determines that there is a theoretical place in the
universe that contains huge quantities of matter that have attained
teaspoon full is estimated to
weigh hundreds of tons). Stephen calls these
holes" because light cannot escape from the black hole's massive
It is theorized that the escape velocity (the speed necessary to break free of a gravitational influence) for a black hole exceeds the speed of light. Since light speed is the maximum speed limit in the universe (Einstein) then it seems that once you are in a black hole there is no escape (unless you can find a way to go faster than light and then presumably go back in time and avoid entering the blackhole in the first place).
claims that material objects approaching
speed would begin to expand (mass)
exponentially. As a result of
the expansion there would be an infinite
to any increase in velocity.
(Note: This is not a 'bug
on the windshield' scenario, this is the vacuum of space
which offers no resistance to motion). Einstein's theory
established "light speed" as the maximum speed limit in the
universe and also raises the possibility that a blackhole
only a handful of matter traveling at near light speed.
Hawking counters by stating that a spacecraft entering the outer envelope (Event Horizon) of a black hole would appear, (to observers from a great distance), to slow down to the point that "time", as we know it, would appear to stop.
The spacecraft passengers entering the blackhole would experience no temporal distortion but would, according to Hawking, "be gradually squashed into spaghetti" because of the infinitely crushing gravitational field.
This scenario seems to be somewhat reminiscent of Christopher Columbus' crew fearing falling off the edge of the Earth.
Anyhow, time, in Hawking's theory, stops or slows to a crawl in a blackhole. In other words, in a blackhole both time and velocity cease.
So, the question is, "If light cannot be stopped (Einstein), and if light is trapped inside of a black hole (Hawking) where time and velocity have stopped then what is it that happens to the velocity of light without the presence of time? In other words, how do you measure "light speed" without having time as a part of the equation?
It is at this juncture (paradox) that Einstein and Hawking part company. If light stops in a black hole (Hawking) then time must stop also (Einstein interpreted).
Conclusion?: If black holes exist then a pure black hole would be virtually invisible because its only interaction with external space would be a massive warp in the space/time continuum. A black hole could only be detected by observing light seeming to be bent and slowed down as it passed by the event horizon (outer envelope) of the black hole.
interpretation (my own)
is that if blackholes are actually massive accumulations of highly
compressed matter, and not just a handful of matter whose mass is
expanding exponentially (sub-light
then what happens in a black hole is that hydrogen produces helium...
then combustion... and then millions of years later
combustion reaches the surface of the blackhole which is then
transformed into a star.
What does all of this mean?
indicates that the universe, as
we know it, is a vast vortex of energy and phenomena that 'play-out' on the fabric of space-time.
It indicates that matter is stored energy (E=MC²) that experiences temporal distortions and variable mass depending upon velocity.
It indicates (suggests) that space and time (NOT the measurements but the 'entity' of space-time) are 'joined at the hip' and are (is) the initial ingredient for the existence of any phenomena. (Perhaps 'space' also 'flows' like time and gravity flow).
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