Global Warming and Precession of the Equinox

the joy of oceanfront property

and a return to the tropical climate of the early Devonian Period
(approximately 400+ million years ago)

Global Warming and Precession of the Equinox

The Orbital Variance Theory © 

The Earth's "orbital variance" is
the "in breath and out breath" of the Earth's orbit
over geologic ages and the eons.

Summary of The Orbital Variance Theory ©
is that The Earth's orbit of the Sun is revealed to be a 'spiral'
when examined over Aeons of time

(Click for representational image - opens in new browser window)


This page is dedicated to Milutin Milankovitch
a  Serbian astronomer, mathematician, scientist, civil engineer and geophysicist, best known for his theory of ice ages,
relating variations of the Earth's orbit and long-term climate change, now known as Milankovitch cycles.

Milutin Milankovitch global warming earth cycles

"A theory is more impressive the greater is the simplicity of its premise..."
Albert Einstein

Overview 

Premise: 'Global Warming' is the result of the Earth moving closer to the Sun. 
More than two-thirds of the world's metropolitan centers are in areas vulnerable to global warming as a result of rising sea levels.
Global warming will continue at an accelerated rate and every coastal region that is presently (2008) at or below 30 feet above sea level is absolutely going to wind up (this century) in a "Venice" situation.
Global warming and the Precession of the Equinox both have a common cause.
The common cause is a natural astronomical cycle called "Orbital Variance ©".  
Carbon emissions seriously magnify the issue but are not the primary cause of Global Warming.
Presently, we are at the 'tail end' of the most recent Ice Age and at the almost 'half way' point between the extremes (global tropical conditions / Ice Ages) of the Orbital Variance
© cycle.  



This page is dedicated to Milutin Milankovitch (1879-1958) 
who, like Galileo, informed us that it is we (The Earth) who are moving... 
- Milankovitch, M. (1920). Theorie Mathematique des Phenomenes Thermiques produits par la Radiation Solaire. Gauthier-Villars Paris.
- Milankovitch, M. (1930). Mathematische Klimalehre und Astronomische Theorie der Klimaschwankungen, Handbuch der Klimalogie Band 1. Teil A Borntrager Berlin.
- Milankovitch, M. (1941). Kanon der Erdbestrahlungen und seine Anwendung auf das Eiszeitenproblem. Belgrade.
Milutin Milankovitch revealed that the earth's orbital "cycle" has additional modulations that make it fluctuate considerably. They correspond to three variables (according to Milankovitch) in the earth's orbit.
    - Most important of these variations is the eccentricity cycle of 93,408 years (according to Milankovitch) - which is the variation of the Earth's orbit from its almost circular path.
    - The second of the orbital cycles is the change in the tilt of the earth's equatorial plane in relation to its orbital plane over a period (according to Milankovitch), averaging 41,000 years.
    - The third orbital phenomenon is the 25,920-year precession cycle which causes a gradual shift of the Earth's polar (poles) alignment. 
    

Milankovitch cycles have pushed us in the right direction but we have not, as yet, fully accounted for the timing of events* regarding glacial / interglacial cycles and it has become clear that some other variable is still missing ... Additionally, the present 'silent consensus' on the causes of Ice Ages is, "we don't really know why Ice Ages occur"... 
...perhaps The Orbital Variance Theory © provides the missing information. 
*The "traditional" Milankovitch Cycles explanation struggles to explain the dominance of the 100,000 year cycle over the last 8 cycles

Summary:  The Orbital Variance Theory ©  lives within the realm of theoretical orbital mechanics.  
The Orbital Variance Theory postulates that the Earth's orbit around the Sun gradually and routinely expands and contracts. The time span between the theorized contraction and expansion of the Earth's orbit takes place over eons (Ice Ages to global tropical climates). 

Note: ICE AGES are periods in the earth's history when a significant, extended cooling of the atmosphere and ocean took place.   Although continental ice sheets withdrew from North America and Europe about 10,000 years ago, at the end of the Pleistocene epoch, many scientists believe that the Quaternary Ice Age is not over yet.  Evidence of earlier ice ages also suggests a recurring or cyclical pattern of the Earth's cooling and then heating and this has caused many scientists to conclude that Milankovitch Cycles do not supply all of the answers.


Orbital Variance (as described herein) also accounts for (contributes to) the phenomenon known as the Precession of the Equinox and also includes a RE-cession of the Equinox.  The orbital variance is measured by 3.14 seconds (of time) daily.
The 3.14 (
cumulative) seconds (of time) is the temporal measure of how much closer to the Sun we had moved since the day before (while in a PRE-cessional phase).   There is more (below) on this regarding the arithmetic of precession.

According to measurements taken at the Great Pyramid
, (and interpreted by myself) the length of a year varies, over eons of time, from:
363.61 days (exactly 363.6102608 days)
(when the Earth is the closest to the Sun, i.e. Global Warming) to
366.75
days (exactly 366.7518535 days)  (when the Earth is farthest from the Sun, i.e. Ice Ages).
The mean length of a year is NOT 365.2422 days but is 365.18 days (exactly 365.1810572 days). 
As the mean length of an 'Orbital Variance' year is  365.18 days, we have NOT, as yet, passed the
'half way mark' as we gradually move towards the Orbital Variance's perihelion (
closest to the Sun).

In other words, we are at the tail end of the most recent Ice Age and gradually headed towards relatively 'tropical' global weather.  

Ice Age Arithmetic


Global Warming Arithmetic, Pi, Precession of the Equinox

"God is the Great Geometer"
Plato
The traditional Milankovitch Cycles explanation struggles to explain the dominance of the approximately 100,000 year cycle over the last 8 cycles; perhaps The Orbital Variance Theory© can fill in the missing blanks.  

Additionally, the present 'silent consensus' on the causes of Ice Ages is, "we don't really know why Ice Ages occur".  Enter....  The Orbital Variance Theory ©

Presently the difference (in distance) from when the Earth (annually) is closest to the Sun (Perihelion) and farthest from the Sun (Aphelion) is a 'function' of Pi or 3,141,593 miles (pi times 1,000,000).  
 Perihelion >>>> 3,141,593 miles <<<< Aphelion
Quite remarkable! I call this an expression of The Pi Factor ©

The fluctuations between the
Perihelion and the Aphelion contribute significantly to temperature fluctuations on the Earth. These 'fluctuations', it seems, do NOT contribute to long term global warming (because they 'come and go' annually because of the Earth's  elliptical orbit ) but, rather, work in tandem with the Earth's annual back-and-forth tilt on her axis, and together they result in seasonal changes with accompanying variations in temperature. 

The Orbital Variance Theory © hypothesizes an additional 'orbital variance' that is cumulative and results in climate variances that produce periodic Ice Ages and periodic Tropical Global Weather (Global Warming). These same orbital variances also result in the 'apparent' Precession of the Equinoxes.

Time, as we measure it, is simply the 'circumference' of two 'circles' (cycles):
1) The Earth's daily axis rotation (a day) and
2) The Earth's annual circle around the Sun (a year)
As such, 'pi' and 'time'
(seem to) could have a 'hidden relationship'.

The Orbital Variance Theory © embraces the existence of a "Pi / Time" and has  determined that 'long term orbital variance' (the type that produces Ice Ages) can be 'measured' at 3 .14 seconds ('pi seconds') of time per day.  

The
3 . 14 seconds is the mean deviation.  The actual deviation, over time, is from 3.11 seconds to 3.17 seconds daily. In other words, the TIME required for the Earth to complete one orbit around the Sun (a year) decreases daily by the rate of 3.14 seconds (of time) and accumulates, annually, to approximately 18 minutes (+-).

Every (approx.) 72 years the annual 18 (+ -) minutes has accumulated to almost one full day, and has done so despite the addition of 'leap years', 'leap seconds', etc.  So, after 72 years we actually 'show up early' for the 'Vernal Equinox' and decide that the entire outer visible universe has 'mysteriously' backed-up one whole degree (day) in the last 72 years!  We call this 'backing up' The Precession of The Equinoxes. In fact, we use this 'backing up' to measure and determine the length of astrological ages*
* Each sign of the zodiac is 30 Degrees of arc. The precessional movement (of the Sun) is 1 degree of 'backwards' movement every 72 years. The length of time that it takes for the Sun to 'precess' (backwards movement) through an entire sign of the zodiac is 2160 years. Each astrological age, then, is 2160 years. Presently (2008) we are in The Age of Pisces. Which means that on the Vernal Equinox (tropical calendar, Sun enters 0 degrees Aries) the Sun is actually (Sidereal) in the constellation of Pisces. The actual degree where the Sun is, in Pisces and at the Vernal Equinox, reveals where we are, time wise, within the 2160 year astrological age.

This daily
  3 . 14 second 'orbital variance' (as mentioned above) is cumulative and results not only in The Precession of The Equinoxes but, also, in periodic and radical climate shifts*.  

The present 3.14 second daily decrease is caused by fixed and definite incremental variances in the distance from the Earth to the Sun which go beyond natural 'elliptical' variances (egg shaped orbit) and, also, beyond Milankovitch Cycles.

The Earth's orbit of the Sun is revealed to be a 'spiral'

when examined over Aeons of time.



Please note that these calculations are going to vary slightly from present 'consensus' because present 'consensus' calculations of precession are based upon the length of a year being a relative 'constant'.

The 3.14 seconds (mean) of time (in a PREcessional or warming cycle) accumulates (actually causing 'apparent' precession), and over a period of 72 years it amounts to 'almost' one full 24 hour day [actual precessional rates vary, over time, from 19.19329333 minutes a year (when Earth is at Aphelion) to 18.99225167 minutes a year (when Earth is at Perihelion)].
The differences are caused by subtle shifts in gravitational energies (primarily from the Sun) as the Earth's orbit expands and contracts, over eons. 

The Earth's daily axis rotation is 'quicker' at the
Aphelion and slower at the Perihelion. This underscores just how subtle gravity is.  A 3,141,593 mile difference (from the Sun) 'translates' into only 'hundredths of a second of time' difference in daily axis rotation.


The daily 3.14 seconds of variance is invisible (except for 'macro' cycles) because the Earth's tilt and seasonal changes and daily and incremental shifts in the time of sunrise and sunset make the 3.14 seconds 'hidden' (invisible) from direct observation.
The primary expression of the 3.14 seconds is a nano-scopic difference in the distance from the Earth to the Sun. It is reflected in the daily diminishment of the length of a year by 3.14 seconds. The reason for the 3.14 second 'diminishment' is because the Earth's orbit has 'contracted' (Precessional phase) by a microscopic distance that accumulates and has the effect of shortening the length of a year.
The 3.14 second daily difference (mean) accumulates (annually and cumulatively ,year after year) to create
the 'apparent illusion' of The Precession of the Equinoxes and is the cause of the periodic shift (constant Orbital Variances) from Ice Ages to Global Tropical Weather.


precessional cycles precession of the equinoix global warming orbital variance theory
This image (above) depicts (exaggerated) the gradual expansion and subsequent contraction
of the Earth's 'spiral orbit' around the Sun, according to The Orbital Variance Theory ©
According to the O.V.T., the time between the outer orbital cycle and inner orbital cycle is 86,400 years.
One 'full cycle' is 172,800 years (outer to inner then back to outer). 
The length of a year while the Earth is closest to the Sun is 363.61 days.
The length of a year while the Earth is farthest from the Sun is 366.75 days.
Presently, we are not quite yet to the 'middle' of the 'contraction' cycle, where the length of a year is 365.18 days.
We are still at the 'tail end' of the most recent Ice Age.



The Orbital Variance Theory © states that the length of a year varies, over the ages, from
363.61 days (exactly 363.6102608 days) (when the Earth is the closest to the Sun, i.e. Global Warming) to
366.75
days (exactly 366.7518535 days)  (when the Earth is farthest from the Sun, i.e. Ice Ages).  
This means that the length of a year (365.18 days - exactly 365.1810572 days) varies by as much as 3.141592654 days.  The 'Pi difference' amounts to 271,433.6053 seconds of time.

So the big question is, "How can you know the number of years that it takes to go from the 'extreme' of one cycle (peak of Ice Age) to the other (peak of Tropical Climate)?*
**

The answer is 86,400 years (peak of Ice Age - to - peak of Tropical Age) or 172,800 years for one complete cycle (peak of Ice Age - then back to - peak of the next Ice Age)....  all with "
Milankovitch Cycles" adding additional intermittent variables but not affecting the overall length of the 'macro' cycles (as stated)

*** How?    
365.18 (length of mean year, a 'circumference')
equals = 876,432 hours
equals = 5,258,592 minutes
equals
= 31,551,552 seconds  (a 'circumference')
which, when divided by pi
equals = 86,400 which equates, in this instance to 86,400
years from peak of Ice Age to peak of Tropical Climate.  It is (represents) the temporal distance between the Orbital Variance's Aphelion (Earth farthest from the Sun) and Perihelion (Earth closest to the Sun).
Why?  Because circumference (
31,551,552 seconds) divided by 'pi' equals 'the diameter".  In this instance (above) 'the diameter' is the distance between Perihelion & Aphelion.  

Note: 86,400 is also the numbers of seconds in a day (a coincidence?)!
According to this method (Pi Factor / Ice Age Arithmetic) one 'day' (one cycle each of light and dark) is the microscopic equivalent to one ice age cycle (cooling then warming); an expression of 'The Pi Factor ©'.

The method (calculations) seems irrational, but who can explain why Pi X D=Circumference?
There is a 'hidden relationship' among all natural temporal cycles and what reveals the relationship is 'pi'.


This pi / time relationship seems to be a hidden theme (revelation) of The Great Pyramid at Giza.

The relationship exists between 'pi' and 'time' because time, as we measure it, is 'circles'....(Earth's axis rotation / a day - and solar orbit / a year). "Time is circles"..... time is 'geometry in motion' and just as all circles have a relationship to 'pi', so too do all natural temporal cycles have a relationship with 'pi' and with each other. As such, a 'second' (of time) is a microcosm of a 'day', which in turn, is a microcosm of a 'year' (See also, The Pi Factor © );  just as a second of arc is a microcosm of a minute of arc, which in turn, is a microcosm of a degree of arc. Your wristwatch is a base-60 computer that calculates the movement of the Sun. If you have a 24 hour watch-face with 'hands' (pre-digital) then the hour hand actually 'tracks' the aparent orbit of the Sun.

*Please note...
Any use of 'Pi" in a calculation is 'irrational' until the method is proven to be accurate.
The first person who said that "Pi times the diameter of a circle equals that circle's circumference" was, most probably, thought to be a lunatic.....  
until it was demonstrated to be true. 
  
 The 'pi' relationship is present on every level of our 'natural' temporal measurements.  In a way similar to 'pi' having a 'relatedness' to every circle, regardless of size.
The most 'reasonable' explanation is because 'time', as we measure it, is 'circumference' (a geometric item). The 'circumference' of the Earth's daily axis rotation (a day) and the 'circumference' of the Earth's orbit around the star that is our Sun (a year) is how we measure 'time'.  All 'circles', including the 'circle of time' have a 'relatedness' to 'pi'. 


 

The Orbital Variance Theory ©, eliminates the present (contrived) "Earth Wobble Theory" as the cause (explanation) of Precession because no "wobble" alone, could have a cumulative/clockwork effect that could produce the phenomenon of equinoctial precession as we experience it (approx. 1 degree every 72 years and used to measure the length of astrological ages). 
Additionally, I have searched for the 'Vector Math" (internet, libraries, etc.) that 'proves' or justifies 'wobble' as a primary cause of the Precession of The Equinox, and have found absolutely none, what-so-ever.  Anyhow, 'precession' (physics/mechanical) describes (also) a gyroscope with a decaying velocity which, in turn, causes, the polar axes (axis plural) to 'wobble'.  There is no indication that the Earth's rotational velocity (daily axis rotation) is problematic. Plus, 
equinoctial precession is the result of our 'showing up early' (Vernal Equinox) and not 'late' as the 'precession' of physics would dictate.


Summary

The Orbital Variance Theory suggests that the actual length of a year varies (over the eons) by as much as 3.14 days (fluctuating 1.57 days on either side of the mean year of 
364.84 days) and that the variance is caused by the gradual (and natural) expansion and contraction of the Earth's orbit over millions and millions of years. 

The astronomical measurements that we have used to determine the length of a year have been taken within a very small window of about 2000 years. We presume, incorrectly, that our measurements are constants. 

The geometry of the Earth's orbit is not constant. Astronomers have defined a mean tropical year as having a length of about 365.24219 (365.2422) days and this number (365.24219) is currently shrinking  adding support to The Orbital Variance Theory ©.  

The Orbital Variance Theory accounts for the cyclical appearance of Ice Ages, Great Floods, and beyond.  The shortest year, according to The Orbital Variance Theory ©, is 363.28 days and the Earth's orbit around the Sun proceeds in a great spiral that increases and decreases over aeons.

The difference between the tropical year (calendar) and the sidereal year (stars) is called "Precession of the Equinoxes"

The "Orbital Variance Theory ©" contributes to the analysis of the phenomenon of precession by adding into the mix a continual and "slight" contraction (and subsequent expansion, eons later) of the earth's orbit over very long periods of time.  The theory has its roots in measurements taken at The Great Pyramid. 

The tilt of the Earth on her axis accounts for seasonal changes; the expansion and contraction (Orbital Variance Theory ©) of the Earth's orbit accounts for, working in tandem with "Milankovitch Cycles", the extraordinarily "stark" global climate fluctuations.

The global climate fluctuations extend from Ice Ages to Great Floods and Global Tropical Climate.  Orbital fluctuations are the real long term cause of our present condition of "global warming".


The Orbital Variance Theory also includes a recession of the equinox which is the bi-polar companion to our present observation of PREcession.

The expanding and contracting of the Earth's orbit takes place over such expansive periods of time that recorded history would make no mention nor observation of recession.

The precessional period occurs during the gradually contracting phase of the Earth's orbit.

The recessional period occurs during the "expanding" phase.

Theoretically there is a mean period where the solar year and sidereal year are identical.



The Mental 'Monkey Bars'
The Great Pyramid is The Rosetta Stone of the Cosmos
 
I am, somewhat, in very good company in looking to The Great Pyramid for astronomical and calendar related measurements.  Sir Isaac Newton attempted to utilize measurements from The Great Pyramid in formulating his theory on gravitation, (He needed to know the exact circumference of the Earth). His initial attempt produced unfavorable results, however, that was because the initial measurements (of the pyramid's base) were not accurate because of debris around the pyramid's base. Newton's second attempt was highly successful.

    The word "Pyramid" comes from the two Greek words 

"pyra" (fire / light) and "mid" (measures or median measures).


Trying to determine what system of measurement was used in the construction of The Great Pyramid has been perplexing to Egyptologists.
In order to discern the system of measurement used, the exalted and illuminated Sir Issac Newton determined that the architectural arithmetic of the Great Pyramid's base sides should equal (equate to) 365.2422 (present length of tropical year) so he (Newton) created a ratio of 1:1.00106 to make the actual numbers conform because the actual measurements were close but not exact.
The 1.00106 number is now considered to be a 'pyramid inch' and seems to be based upon the British Imperial Inch which is slightly larger than the American inch. (silly stuff...an asortment of inches).

Isaac Newton's 'pyramid inch solution' opened many doors and, as a result of Newton's innovation, many of the pyramid's 'secrets' were gradually brought to light. 

My conclusion is that the "Pyramid Inch" is an ingenious contrivance that was introduced to 'skew' measurements taken at The Great Pyramid to conform to our (then) present understanding of the length of a year. Newtons' innovation was, in fact, an expression of his astounding genius and was well received.

Never
-the-less, there is much derision, regarding the seeming fictional 'pyramid inch'. Newton correctly reasoned that the use of the 'pyramid inch ratio' made the numbers involved conform to familiar whole numbers (i.e., length of a year in days). The problem with this approach is that the concept of 'pyramid inches' is based upon numbers that we believe are 'constants' but which, in reality, may not be constants.
The 'derision' part is not based upon Newton's 'Pyramid Inch", rather, it is based upon the rejection of the idea that The Great Pyramid could actually contain vast amounts of astronomical data 'embedded' into its architecture.  Perhaps the phrase, "Wonder of The World" may be helpful. 

Considering that The Great Pyramid is a monument to light (and to the Sun) it is reasonable that some association would exist (architectural) that indicates the length of a year (or distance from...) when the Earth is closest to the sun.

Making a precise determination in this matter has been quite a challange because there is so much spin and confusion regarding precise measurements at The Great Pyramid (Even Isaac Newton had pyramid measurement problems). However, by decoding the symbolism of the pyramid it is quite reasonable to conclude that the actual length of a year varies from eon to eon; I have given my best effort to finding the solution to this matter.   see also, Precession Of The Equinox

Note:
W. M. Flinders Petrie's classic book, "
The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh" is considered the definitive tome on the measurements and dimensions of the Great Pyramid. His measurements were in 'British Imperial Inches'  and, admittedly, there is a bit of confusion about what system of measurement(s) was employed by the pyramid builders, but Pietrie's work has preserved and annotated the pyramid's many dimensions.  Nevertheless, the pyramid's pi ratio is not in question because
precision is not the issue in this small essay; the essay is designed to convey the mechanics behind the Orbital Variance Theory©.  
There have been complicated and perverse (ha ha) Great Pyramid theories that have been formulated using American and British inches and applying them to the pyramid measurements. The problem with these theories is that many of the conclusions are 'forced'' and we wind up with a creature called 'the pyramid inch' (Sir Issac Newton) that attempts top get the pyramid to conform to our system of measures. These various 'inch' theories are interesting and fun but unreliable, i.e "The pyramid's door is 12 inches thick which is a size 11 man's shoe, so God must wear size 11 loafers".





"non geek speak recap" ...
just imagine a runner going around a track.....the track is 12 feet wide and one mile in length and the runner maintains an average speed of 10 miles per hour.  The runner will complete one revolution of the track quicker if he or she runs on the inner edge of the track and, conversely, the length of time to complete one revolution of the track from the outer edge will be slightly longer. 

The "Orbital Variance Theory" postulates that the Earth's orbit fluctuates over vast expanses of time (ages) and varies (in a precise path) from the outside of the orbital "ecliptic" (track) to the inside of the orbital "ecliptic"...like the runner mentioned above.

When the Earth is on the outer side of the track (orbit) she is farther from the Sun than when she is orbiting on the inside edge of the track.

The outer orbital location produces ice ages and the inner orbit produces gradual "great flooding" and comfortable tropical living for dinosaurs.

The gradual shifting from the outer orbit to inner orbit contributes to the Precession of the Equinox and the reverse shift (inner to outer) will produce a RE-cession of the Equinox.

Hypothetically, there is a mean period where the tropical and sidereal systems will be precisely aligned.

The orbital fluctuations have a minuscule measurable effect on the (mean) length of a day and the Earth still rotates on her axis once every 24 hours, however, the Earth's gradually contracting orbit would trim some time off of the length of a year (one trip around the Sun).

As our measuring devices have become more sophisticated we have discovered that the actual average length of a year has been decreasing incrementally, however, our 'overall' measurements have been performed in a VERY SMALL window (a 2000 year time frame) and we have presumed that our measurements are constants.

In the past (at least) 100 years, the Earth's orbit (according to the Orbital Variance Theory ©) has moved us a bit closer to the Sun.  When you consider that the Earth's tilt on her axis (approximately 23 degrees) is what causes seasonal changes (Summer to Winter) it is quite reasonable to believe that a gradual and persistent orbital variance will produce dramatic climate fluctuations (ice ages) over the eons.

Geologically speaking, I suggest (also) that we are presently at the tail end of the last ice age and that we are gradually moving closer to the Sun. 

 
In the year 1900 the length of a year was measured at 31,556,926 seconds long and the length of a year has been gradually ("microscopically") decreasing since, and as a result, the Earth has been warming up as she slowly moves us closer to the Sun as her orbit shrinks.
The Orbital Variance Theory theorizes that the shortest length of a year is actually 
363.61 days and that the length of a year, as measured presently, (365.2422 days) is only temporarily accurate.
The median length of an 'orbital variance' year is Pi x 10,000,000 seconds (31,415,926.54) or 363.61 days.

Global Warming and Precession of the Equinox

The first edition of The Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1771  (Astronomy, page 453) records the length of the solar year as 365.2564 days and the Earth's mean distance from the Sun at 94,725,840 miles. The astronomical measurements from 1771 are greater than our present calculations (365.2422 and 93,000,000+/-) and indicate (presuming accuracy) that our orbit is presently in a contracting phase with global warming as a natural result.  
I understand that systems and methods of astronomical measurement have been vastly improved since the late 1700's and that the 1771 measurements may have been inaccurate but there is additional astronomical data supporting the notion that the Earth's orbit is in a contracting phase. 
The tropical year, upon which our calendar is based, is the interval between 2 consecutive returns of the Sun to the vernal equinox (1st day of Spring). The tropical year, in 1900, consisted of 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes, and 46 seconds. The length of the tropical year has been decreasing (ever so slightly) since (and was decreasing before then but our measurement devices were not sophisticated enough to detect the very slight difference). These measurements, at least, support the theory that the orbit of the Earth is contracting thus making the Earth's journey around the Sun a bit faster.  A contracting orbit results in the planet's average mean temperature rising (because we are closer to the Sun and the temperature increase has a cumulative effect) to create the condition of global warming, which is exacerbated by carbon emissions creating a greenhouse effectWe need to take action now to mitigate the future effects of Global Warming. The least that we can do is to start planting a great deal of trees (carbon removing) and get on with the manufacture and promotion of solar powered devices (less CO 2 to reduce the 'Greenhouse Effect'). We are in the 3rd millennium and still discuss 'horsepower'? 
How about some photon dialogue instead!

Portions of research materials used on this page were provided by The New Millennium Encyclopedia
© Copyright Simon & Schuster New Millennium Encyclopedia
© 1998 Simon & Schuster, Inc.
© 1998 Community Network Systems, Inc. and its licensors. 

Royal Astronomical Society, global warming, precession of the equinox equinoxes   
With special thanks to various members (2006-2008) of 

'The Royal Astronomical Society' (RAS) 
London, United Kingdom

 

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