Integrated Architecture and Landscape

The field of architecture and landscape has a new theory called "passages". An artist, James Wines, in response to the unprogressive recent movement in architecture- "folding", defines "passages" as the "interpretation of architecture and its context as a system of passages linking buildings, landscape and social/contextual/environmental communication. Buildings conceived as integrations of structure and landscape are mutable and evolutionary, constantly conveying new and metamorphic levels of information. Whereas folding suggests a design process of methodical, geometric, formal strategies [sustainable inventions are essential yet boring], the notion of passages aims for organic and informal connections between buildings and landscape.

Putnam Residence, Hollister Ranch, Gaviota, California.
Earth Sheltered, Passive Solar

Architect Robert Hotten, MLA/AIA

Contractor Scott Timmerman



Muntifiq Sheikh's house on the Euphrates.
Built entirely with giant reed or quasab plant, Phragmites Communis.



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