The Errors of John Wycliffe
as proclaimed by THE COUNCIL OF CONSTANCE 1414-1418
Session VIII, May 4, 1415.

[Condemned in Council and by the Bulls "Inter Cunctas" and "In eminentis" Feb. 22, 1418.]

1. In the sacrament of the altar the material substance of bread and likewise the material substance of the wine remain.

2. In the same sacrament the accident of the bread do not remain without a subject.

3. In the same sacrament Christ is not identically and really with His own bodily presence.

4. If a bishop or priest is living in mortal sin, he does not ordain, not consecrate, nor perform, nor baptize.

5. It is not established in the Gospel that Christ arranged the Mass.

6. God ought to obey the devil.

7. If man is duly contrite, every exterior confession on his part is superfluous and useless.

8. If the pope is foreknown and evil, and consequently a member of the devil, he does not have power over the faithful given to him by anyone, unless perchance by Caesar.

9. After Urban VI no one should be received as pope, unless he live according to the customs of the Greeks under their laws.

10. It is contrary to Sacred Scripture that ecclesiastical men have possessions.

11. No prelate should excommunicate anyone, unless first he knows that he has been excommunicated by God; and he who so excommunicates becomes, as a result of this, a heretic or excommunicated.

12. A prelate excommunicating a cleric who has appealed to the king, or to a council of the kingdom, by that very act is a traitor of the king and the kingdom.

13. Those who cease to preach or to hear the word of God because of the excommunication of men, are themselves excommunicated, and in the judgment of God they will be considered traitors of Christ.

14. It is permissible for any deacon or priest to preach the word of God without the authority of the Apostolic See or a Catholic bishop.

15. No one is a civil master, no one a prelate, no one a bishop, as long as he is in mortal sin.

16. Temporal rulers can at their will take away temporal goods from the church, when those who have possessions habitually offend, that is, offend by habit, no only by an act.

17. People can at their will correct masters who offend.

18. The tithes are pure alms and parishioners can take these away at will because of the sins of their prelates.

19. Special prayers applied to one person by prelates or religious are not of more benefit to that person than general (prayers), all other things being equal.

20. One bringing alms to the Brothers is excommunicated by that very thing.

21. If anyone enters any private religious community of any kind, of those having possessions or the mendicants [beggars / Friars], he is rendered unfit and unsuited for the observance of the laws of God.

22. Saints, instituting private religious communities, have sinned by instituting them.

23. Religious living in private religious communities are not of the Christian religion.

24. Brothers are bound to acquire their food by the labor of hands and not by begging.

25. All are simoniacs who oblige themselves to pray for others who assist them in temporal matters.

26. The prayer for the foreknown is of avail to no one.

27. All things happen from absolute necessity.

28. The confirmation of youths, ordination of clerics, and consecration of places are reserved to the pope and bishops on account of their desire for temporal gain and honor.

29. Universities, studies, colleges, graduations, and offices of instruction in the same have been introduced by a vain paganism; they are of as much value to the Church as the devil.

30. The excommunication of the pope or of any prelate whatsoever is not to be feared, because it is the censure of the Antichrist.

31. Those who found cloisters sin and those who enter (them) are diabolical men.

32. To enrich the clergy is contrary to the rule of Christ.

33. Sylvester, the Pope, and Constantine, the Emperor, erred in enriching the Church.

34. All of the order of mendicants [beggars / Friars] are heretics, and those who give alms to them are excommunicated.

35. Those entering religion or any order, by that very fact are unsuited to observe divine precepts, and consequently to enter the kingdom of heaven, unless they apostatize from them.

36. The pope with all his clergy who have possessions are heretics, because they have possessions; and all in agreement with these, namely all secular masters and other laity.

37. The Roman Church is the synagogue of Satan, and the pope is not the next and immediate vicar of Christ and His apostles.

38. The decretal letters are apocryphal and they seduce from the faith of Christ, and the clergy who study them are foolish.

39. The emperor and secular masters have been seduced by the devil to enrich the Church with temporal goods.

40. The election of the pope by cardinals was introduced by the devil.

41. It is not necessary for salvation to believe that the Roman Church is supreme among other churches.

42. It is foolish to believe in the indulgences of the pope and bishops.

43. Oaths are illicit which are made to corroborate human contracts and civil commerce.

44. Augustine, Benedict, and Bernard have been damned, unless they repented about this, that they had possessions and instituted and entered religious communities; and thus from the pope to the last religious, all are heretics.

45. All religious communities without distinction have been introduced by the devil.


Source: The Sources of Catholic Dogma, translated by Roy J. Deferrari, from the Thirtieth Edition of Henry Denzinger's Enchiridion Symbolorum, copyright 1957 by B. Herder Book Co., published by Marian House, Powers Lake N.D. 58773, Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 57-5963, pages 208-211.

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